Monday, March 16, 2020
The Controversy of Stem Cell Research Free Online Research Papers For years scientists have experimented, studied, and researched to find cures to numerous devastating diseases. It has been questioned whether many of those diseases will ever be cured. At the present time, the best, and possibly even the only way to develop a cure for those diseases can be found through the research of embryonic stem cells. Unfortunately, stem cell research is being hindered by people and organizations who are opposed to it. There are many moral issues behind this, and there are strong reasons on both sides. First: perhaps it would be best to explain what a stem cell is. In the executive summary for an essay done by the Health and Human Services Department and the National Institutes of Health about the scientific progress and future directions of stem cell research, it explains stem cells as follows: A stem cell is a special kind of cell that has a unique capacity to renew itself and to give rise to specialized cell types. Although most cells of the body, such as heart cells or skin cells, are committed to a specific function, a stem cell is uncommitted and remains uncommitted, until it receives a signal to develop into a specialized cell. Their proliferate capacity combined with the ability to become specialized makes stem cells unique. Researchers have for years looked for ways to use stem cells to replace cells and tissues that are damaged or diseased. Recently, stem cells have received much attention. What is new and what has brought stem cell biology to the forefront of science and public policy? Stem cell research has many positive benefits to it. One of the worlds worst diseases, cancer, has gone a long time without a cure. Some people would even doubt that there could be a cure. Since stem cell research has emerged, though, many opinions on the cure for cancer have changed. Scientists now see, through the research of stem cells, the possibly for finding a cure for cancer. If that is true, why then, is it, that many people are opposed to stem cell research? The question, Is an embryo a human being, or is it not? is what Matt Moulton, an eccentric supporter of stem cell research, says is the reason for all of the controversy. Why does it matter? Stem cells are taken from the embryo of what will become a human being, or in some peoples opinion, already is a human being. Even if it is a human being, what is the problem with taking a few cells? The embryonic would eventually develop into the testes or the ovaries. Hence, if the embryo ever fully developed, it would develop without those parts, which are essential parts of the human body. Of course, it all depends on whether one is correct in considering the embryo as a human or not. Even if it can be considered as human, would it not be worth it for what could be accomplished through the research of the stem cells? In the same executive summary as mentioned above, it gives an idea on what stem cell research can accomplish: Stem cells may hold the key to replacing cells lost in many devastating diseases. There is little doubt that this potential benefit underpins the vast interest about stem cell research. What are some of these diseases? Parkinsons disease, diabetes, chronic heart disease, end-stage kidney disease, liver failure, and cancer are just a few for which stem cells have therapeutic potential. For many diseases that shorten lives, there are no effective treatments but the goal is to find a way to replace what natural processes have taken away. For example, today, science has brought us to a point where the immune response can be subdued, so that organs from one person can be used to replace the diseased organs and tissues of another. But, despite recent advances in transplantation sciences, there is a shortage of donor organs that makes it unlikely that the growing demand for lifesaving organ replacements will be fully met through organ donation strategies. From that passage, one could see the numerous benefits that come from stem cell research. Many would say that the benefits are enough that it would be worth risking the possibility of the embryo being considered a human being. The possibility of curing cancer, Parkinsons disease, and many others is something that some would consider more valuable that the life of something that may not even be considered a human being. Even so, there are still many who oppose it. In many ways, it is treading the same territory as the questions about abortion, but that is another topic. The morality of experimenting on part of what may someday be a human being is one of the biggest problems. There are many religious conflicts with this, as well. Questions that emerge about stem cell research are often times similar to ones about cloning, as much of the concept is similar. But it all depends on how you view the idea. Are you ruining an embryo or a human? Stem cell research can also find the causes and possibly ways to prevent birth defects. So one could say, that by messing up a few babies, it is saving thousands. In many ways it is a question of putting the individual or the whole first. Is it wrong to sacrifice soldiers for the sake of a country? Is it wrong to sacrifice embryos for the sake of humanity? Suppose scientist were wrong in their assumption that all of those diseases could be cured? Then they messed up a lot of embryos, or maybe even humans, all to no avail. Then a lot of embryos were sacrificed, and nothing was gained; the soldiers were sacrificed for the nation that lost the war. In that case, those who oppose stem cell research would have been right in opposing it. Of course, no one will know until they try it. If nobody puts money into researching stem cells, and everyone is opposed to it, then no one will ever find out if it really can cure all of those diseases. If people do support stem cell research, though, then they will find out if it is possible to cure cancer, diabetes, Parkinsons disease, and so many others. If it is possible, society made a good choice; if it isnt possible, society made a big mistake. Who can say which is right and which is wrong? Again supposing that embryos really are human. Its a very moral question, there. Are you ruining what would develop into a human being, or are you ruining something that is merely an embryo, without any human attributes to it yet? Are you taking what would be a living, breathing, human being, and using a part of it to make tissue and organs for another human body, or is it just another embryo? Those questions may never be fully answered. Compare it to this analogy. Looking back to the early nineteenth century America, back when African-Americans were mostly in slavery. White slave owners used their slaves to do most of their work, while they sat back and made more money. The white slave owners were building the economy and keeping the fledgling nation financially secure. Of course, it didnt matter that all of the wealth was gained at the expense of the slaves; because, after all, they were slaves, not people, right? Compare that to the research of stem cells. Scientists are taking the stem cells from the embryos, just to find a cure for some diseases; it doesnt matter, of course, because their just embryos, not humans. It all depends on how one looks at it. That could be an acceptable excuse, and it could not. It all comes down to the simple fact that it cannot be decided which side is right. If the cures could be found through stem cell research, then perhaps it could be worth the loss. If the cures cant be found, and all it really does is ruin a bunch of babies, then it was a mistake. At the current moment, not enough is known to decide which is right. In favor of continuing research on stem cells, the same executive summary from the NIH and the HHS states: Predicting the future of stem cell applications is impossible, particularly given the very early stage of the science of stem cell biology. To date, it is impossible to predict which stem cells- those derived from the embryo, the fetus, or the adult- or which methods for manipulating the cells, will best meet the needs of basic research and clinical applications. The answers clearly lie in conducting more research. So those who support it want more research, whereas those who oppose it dont want to sacrifice any more embryos to do the research. Which one is right in their actions? Who could say? Stem Cells: Scientific Progress and future research directions Department of Health and Human Services June 2001 Stem Cell Research Foundation AAAS/ICS Report on Stem Cell Research Institute for Stem Cell research at the University of Edinburgh Moulton, Matt. Personal Interview. 18 Dec. 2003 Research Papers on The Controversy of Stem Cell ResearchGenetic EngineeringBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfResearch Process Part OneInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesCapital PunishmentThree Concepts of PsychodynamicAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andOpen Architechture a white paper
Friday, February 28, 2020
Does the mixture of debt and equity in a firms financial structure matter why - Essay Example There must be a certain proportion of debt and equity in the balance sheet of a company. Variation in the debt and equity ratio of the firm can be seen at the arrival of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s tangible assets and the reduction of its intangible asset. A company with large amount of purchased goodwill forms heavy acquisition activities which may end up with forming a negative equity position for the company. Suppose a firm has a long term debt of $3000 and the value of its assets is $12,000, its debt to equity ratio is 0.25. This ratio indicates that the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s 25 percent assets have been financed through debt. If a company debt to equity ratio is greater than one, this means that majority of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s assets have been financed by debt and therefore there are increased chances of bankruptcy. Such firms are considered riskier in terms of investment in the sight of investors and financial institutions. A company with a balanced debt to equity ratio is considered healthy in the eyes of the investors and lenders. The mixture of debt and equity is considered to be important with respect to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial structure as it is used as a standard for judging the financial performances of companies. It measures the ability of the firm to be able to repay its debt or not. If the debt to equity ratio of a firm is increasing this indicates that the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s assets are rapidly being financed by the debt rather than the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s own finances. The lenders and investors would rather give preference to companies with low debt to equity ratio because their interest would be better protected in the case of business decline. Therefore the companies with low financial leverage ratio are able to attract more investors (Debt-to-Equity Ratio). The optimal financial leverage ratio is 1. This means that all the long term liabilities of a company are equal to its assets. This ratio may vary from industry to industry, as it also
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Twelve Security Attack Trends of 2011 - Essay Example People involved in the business of hacking widely adopt this attack. Security products are not yet able to launch any remedy for it (ComputerWeekly 2010) The second security threat is about file security which is from sharing of files, applications and database that is growing at the rate of 60% annually. File sharing is getting popular day by day specially after launching of Microsoft product Sharepoint. Expansion of Payment Card Industry (PCI) Data Security Standard (DSS) technology to organizations and files besides databases and web applications have open new doors for the attacks Careful measures are needed to protect attacks such as data thefts and files manipulations (ComputerWeekly 2010) The third security threat is from the growth of Smartphones market due to its integration with various web applications and global databases. Intimation to consumers about completion of each and every transaction in their account through SMS messaging services has generated new opportunities for hackers who could use the path of sending data outside the domain for attack. This path of data transition can be used by intruders for data theft and unauthorised access (ComputerWeekly 2010) The fourth security threat is from cloud computing as the large infrastructure of information technology is now rapidly shifting to cloud where hackers and intruders are already present. They will come side by side and the chance of security breach will increase. Opportunities for attacking will develop with the development of consumers and customers of cloud computing (ComputerWeekly 2010) The fifth security threat is from insider. The high rate of job loss due to economic recessions have built a huge source of people who are frustrated and disgruntled and ready to take revenge or make money. The economic pressure and opportunities for selling information may pose serious threats to their previous employers (ComputerWeekly 2010) The sixth security threat is from social networks which have attacked privacy of many people by collecting information in the name of personal profiles. Tricks such as false promises and incomplete information are used to attract people for collection of personal information (ComputerWeekly 2010) The seventh security threat is from convergence of regulations of most countries and to have global laws for data security and privacy. This can bring many more opportunities for intruders and hackers (ComputerWeekly 2010) The eighth security threat is from the separation of cyber security and business operations. Keeping cyber security apart from business operations has created huge opportunities for hackers and individuals. The trend of making cyber security the part of business operations is developing rapidly for example Intel Corporation made acquisition of McAfee and HP of Fortify (ComputerWeekly 2010) The ninth security threat is from the proactive approach of security practitioners which has although helped in catching more hackers, created strong professional Ã¢â¬ËbarÃ¢â¬â¢ of hackers (ComputerWeekly 2010) The tenth security threat is from the attacks of hackers on industry. Success of industrialized hackers has encouraged many more hackers to learn and adopt this approach (ComputerWeekly 2010) Figure 1 shows the extract from (ComputerWeekly 2010) which describes the above ten security threats of 2011 Figure 1: Extract (ComputerWeekly 2010) The eleventh security threat is from cyber war which began with the leakages of Stuxnet and
Friday, January 31, 2020
Rise and Fall of Medieval Chinese Empire Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words
Rise and Fall of Medieval Chinese Empire - Essay Example Consequently, it occurred that the ruling class gradually became alienated from the population, and became deprived of their support during such crisis. In the imperial history of the world, religion has played an important role to hold the people of different races and ethnicities within one empire as Charles Issawi says, "the most important single factor holding India together, and enabling it to survive repeated conquests, has been the Hindu religion. Likewise, the conversion to Roman Catholicism of the native populations"1 Even if the religious belief played a significant role to unite the fragmented Chinese demography, as Issawi says, "Confucianism and Taoism helped China recover its unity after the breakdown of the Han Empire in the third century A.D. and the fragmentation and retrogression caused by the barbarian invasions"2, religion was not the one and only tool that contributed to the unity of the population. The role of religion in empire building during the Tang dynasty w as such that no prevalence of one religion was allowed to suppress another religion. Rather religions were treated and manipulated equally to create the sentiment -of the people- that is committed to the stability and solidarity of the empire. Such religious policy of the Tang Empire was in complete concordance with the 'divergent people in one state' policy of Tang Daizong.3 Therefore, the following factors can be held responsible behind the rise and fall of the Chinese empire during the Tang Dynasty: 1. Culture committed to the solidarity of the Empire4 2. Religions ensuring social stability and at the same time, nourishing the freaks among the population5 3. Effective administrative policies and politics Nature of Rise and Fall throughout the Chinese Imperial Era Throughout the passage of time, the rise and the fall of the medieval Chinese Empire were associated with each other in such a way that the rise of the empire during one dynasty was embedded in the fall of its preceding one and at the same time, the empire collapsed due to its failure to manipulate the variables that contributed its rise. One of the most common factors that contributed to the rise and the fall of the medieval Chinese empire is that the empire, in the first place, was able to unify the population of a vast area either with the consent of the people or by subjugating them with the power, culture, and religion. The role of religions in making the ancient Chinese Empire was not as significant as it was in the making of the medieval Chinese Empire. The less significant role of religion lies in the fact that religions with plural gods and goddesses were not strong enough to play a role in the making of the Chinese. Even if any religion played a role, it was mainly because of the humanistic zeal of the religion that inspired both the Chinese population and empire builders to adopt it as a means to social peace and harmony. Simply religion
Thursday, January 23, 2020
I am going to investigate the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. I will look at the various factors affecting the reaction and select one variable to change, while the others keep constant in order to carry out a deta... Investigating Rate of Reaction Aim I am going to investigate the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. I will look at the various factors affecting the reaction and select one variable to change, while the others keep constant in order to carry out a detailed investigation. Formulae ======== The formula for the chemical reaction is: ========================================= CaCO3(s) + 2HCC(l) CaCl2 (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2 ============================================ I can measure the rate of reaction between the two substances using this formula. Rate of Reaction = Change in Concentration ------------------------------------------ Time Taken for Reaction A chemical reaction is the name given to a substance when it changes and becomes a completely new substance. It is difficult to reverse. It happens when particles make effective collisions with sufficient energy. Apparatus ========= Spatula ------- Conical Flask ------------- Burette Stand + Clamps Measuring Cylinder Safety Goggles Beaker Thermometer Stopwatch Kettle + water Small Funnel Delivery Tube + Bung I have chosen to use a measuring cylinder to make my experiment as accurate as I possibly can. I will be wearing the provided safety goggles at all times to protect my eyes, as hydrochloric acid is an irritant that may prove dangerous if it makes contact with the eyes. Theory The following theories will help me decide which variable I will change in my experiment to investigate the rate of reaction using calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Temperature - Collision Theory ============================== The diagram shows particles that are not moving quickly. This means that the chance of these particles colliding and causing a chemical reaction is rather low. The temperature is obviously low too, as the particles have little energy to move quickly. However, if heat were added, the particles would have more energy and move quicker and have a better chance of colliding. This diagram shows particles that are moving quickly. This means... ...respond with my prediction and back it up. As the temperature increases, so does the rate of reaction. If I were to repeat the experiment again, I would work under strict environment, such as in a closed room with no winds or temperature changes. I would also try and use more accurate ways of reading the temperature and keeping the temperature constant, such as by using a water bath. Doing this would possibly make my results even more accurate. I would also try and make my timing even stricter, possibly using a smaller time interval such as 10 seconds instead of 15, to get slightly more accurate results. I may also use a larger range of acids. I only tried the 1 molar acid, but if I were to repeat the experiment again, I would perhaps use 3 and 4 molar acids and test them under high temperatures. I would like to investigate in future the effect of catalysts and surface area on the rate of reaction, to be more conclusive on the subject and widen my knowledge. All in all, my experiment was a success. Everything went well, and I believe that the techniques and methods I used were accurate and sufficient enough to provide me with a sound set of conclusive results.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
The Road to Basra Ã¢â¬â A Case Study in Military Ethics This report states that this mission contained three moral themes they are as follows: 1) noncombatant immunity and the question of surrender, 2) military necessity and proportionality, and 3) observations regarding the psychology of combat and the possibilities of right intent in combatants. My translation of what those theme mean, as for noncombatant immunity and the question of surrender, a large concern was that the number of unneeded hostage that were contained within the convoy. There seemed to be a lack of certainty on what was defined as surrendering and those that did surrender appeared to still be subject to attack. Immunity didnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear to be an option to many, regardless of various attempt made by many different statures. In regards to, military necessity and proportionality, Was it actually necessary to attack the convoy or could it have been allowed to pass? The convoy passing was the intended purpose of the war. Because of the knowledge and fear of a retaliated attack it was felt that attacking the column with what was best at the time. Whether the attack was proportionate depended on what one thought the goal of the war was. Lastly, observations regarding the psychology of combat and the possibilities of right intent in combatants. The psychological well-being of the troops were all over the board. Some being excited about their involvement of the Ã¢â¬Å"feeding frenzyÃ¢â¬ as some called it. Where others were clearly upset but this, those were asking not to be sent back to that position upon return for refuel. To be delighted on the amount of destruction contributed, having a sense of pleasure from shooting large quantities of live targets. It was stated that the longer a soldier lives in the zone of combat the more desensitized to what he doing he becomes. White Flags on the Road to Basra Ã¢â¬â Surrendering Soldiers in the Persian Gulf War First section depicts soldiers that were waving their white flags and still shot and killed. Pilots expressed delight in the havoc they were causing. Enjoyed displaying the abilities of their aircrafts, showing the damage they can cause. Many Iraqi soldiers abandoned their vehicles on foot, many mere children ages of 13 and 14. They were hunted down and killed by cluster bombs. Many were waving white flags, and this was disregarded. It stated that killing soldier in war is acceptable. There were no established facts that showed that the attack was military necessary. Military necessity consists in acts of violence relevant to achieving a tactical or military objective and compatible with laws and customs of war. So basically because its war, what is defined and necessary is a bevy of ideas depending on what is needed or wanted. There appears to have been a discrepancy as to whether or not the Iraqi troops waved the white flags to surrender. In previous practice when a soldier held up a white flag, they surrender and are granted immunity and fire is ceased. It is believed that Iraqi troops did not display the white flag with intent to surrender. The study states that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s wars arenÃ¢â¬â¢t any remotely close to how they used be when the fight was face to face. With the advancement in technology it becomes a virtual fight so to speak. In many situations you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t see the enemy coming.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
With more and more suppliers in the market place, customers have more diversified options regarding products, prices and shopping places. Therefore, marketing departments gradually come up with ideas on retaining current customers which brings in the concept of customer loyalty. Customer loyalty is the ongoing process of customers buying products or services from a specific company (Gustavsson, 2005). For most companies, retaining customers costs less than attracting new ones and also reduces expenses on promoting products. In order to reach this aim, the organization constantly increases customer loyalty by carrying out loyalty programs to reward the remaining customers for repeated transactions (Donnelly, 2009). The effect of customerÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The essay begins by reviewing the literature to focus on the definition and the different ways to achieve of customer loyalty. Engel and Blackwell (1982) regard brand loyalty as the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ rreaction to preference, attitude and behavior towards one or more brands in a same product category for a long-lasting time. Assael(1992) and Keller(1993) defined brand loyalty as a preferable response towards a brand which leads to the repetitive action of purchasing over a period of time. While Gremler(1995) includes both attitude and behaviour into the scale of measurement of loyalty. Blanchard and Galloway (1994) and Heskett et al (1990) believed that customers assess the value gained from a transaction or service, thus resulting in customer satisfaction.. It is also related to the value expected from the transactions with competitors (Zeithaml et al., 1990). The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is the most significant one in the business market on account of the implications for companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ marketing environment and financial situations (Gupta and Zeithaml, 2006). The current studies identify customer satisfaction as an attitude describing consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions towards their purchasing experiences (Anderson and Salisbury 2003) while customer loyalty, as a result of customer satisfaction, is identified as a potential behaviour to